The ancients believed the World comprised four basic elements – Fire, Water, Air, and Earth. These were considered the critical energy forces that sustained life. These elements are integral parts of matter or the physical universe, and the human body is a physical creation in the material realm. Therefore, human beings were seen to be made of and governed by the four elements. Maintaining a balance between these elements was advocated to ensure physical as well as psychological well-being.

Everything in the physical world was observed to have a combination of four principal qualities – hot, cold, dry and moist. A combination of hot and dry produced Fire, hot and wet resulted in Air, cold and dry gave Earth, and cold and wet combined to produce Water. Furthermore, these four elements combined to create life, but only together with the quintessential fifth element, the life force, the ‘aether’, ‘spirit’ or ‘prana’.

Four Element Symbolism

Almost all cultures across the World accorded great importance to the four elements, and the elements came to acquire powerful symbolism.


This element is considered to be the first element that was born when the universe was created. Fire is attributed to transformational and purifying powers. It can give warmth, enable life, and burn and destroy. Fire stands for Light in the spiritual plane, and in the physical plane, it is the Sun or Flame. The element symbolizes incredible energy, activity, creativity, passion, freedom, power, love, vision, anger, strength, will, assertiveness, courage, and dynamism.
It is associated with the Summer season, and its corresponding direction is South. The symbolic representation of Fire is a triangle pointing upwards.


Water is accorded cleansing power. It symbolizes dreaming, healing, flowing, fluidity, purification, regeneration, stability, strength, change, fertility, devotion, receiving, and unconditional love. It symbolizes death as well as rebirth. It is life-giving but can also be destructive. Fresh Water stands for life and good health, while polluted/stagnant Water symbolizes bad health.
It is associated with the Autumn season and the West direction. An inverted triangle is the symbolic representation of the Water element.


It is associated with the breath of life and attributed to cleansing power. Air symbolizes communication, intelligence, perception, knowledge, learning, thinking, imagination, creativity, harmony, and travel. This source of life can also, at times, become a force of terrible destruction.
Air is associated with the Spring season, and its corresponding direction is East. The Air symbol is an upright triangle with a horizontal line going through it.


The Earth element has cleaning power. It symbolizes prosperity, fertility, stability, orderliness, groundedness, sustenance, creativity, physical abundance, nourishment, solidity, dependability, security, permanence, intuition, introspection, and wisdom.
The season related to Earth is Winter, and the associated direction is North. The element is symbolically represented by an inverted triangle with a horizontal line running through it.


The Masculine and Feminine Symbolism of the Four Elements

The Earth and the Water are the heavier elements with a downward direction. Therefore, they came to represent the feminine archetype, the intuitive function, the passive state and the Chinese Yin attributes. These two elements are related to the symbolism of the Mother Earth.
On the other hand, the Air is above the Water & Earth and has a natural upward movement, while the fiery Sun, stars, and heavens are above even the Air. Both of these elements have a masculine archetype and symbolize the thinking function, the active state and the Yang attributes. They are associated with the Sky Father.

The Four Elements and Astrology

The four elements are believed to rule the 12 zodiac signs.  The different elemental properties have been associated with behavioural attributes and personalities of individuals; persons born under a particular zodiac are believed to have characteristics similar to that of the elements governing the sign. As such,

Fire signs are Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius.




Air signs are Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius.




Earth signs are Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn.




Water signs are Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces.




The four essential elements exist in all of us; their unique combinations determine our distinct personalities. These elements represent energy and symbolize different facets of human life. They all come from nature. Consequently, by connecting with them and understanding their presence in us, we become aware of our connection with nature and our relationship with the divine.