The Greek alphabet has been around since the early 9th to 8th century BC. It was the first alphabet to portray letters, vowels, and consonants. The letters were both upper and lower case. The Greek alphabet was developed from the Phonecian alphabet. The letters have evolved individually and in groups over time to represent different things. From the sciences to fraternities to literature the Greek alphabet has been incorporated into everyday use. The standard Greek alphabet is the Euclidean alphabet consisting of 24 letters from Alpha to Omega:

The individual letters have been used as symbols throughout the ancient and modern times.

### Alpha

Alpha is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. The letter Alpha has been used in engineering, physics, chemistry, mathematics, and science. The alpha symbol has been used to represent alpha particles and alpha rays in physics. It is also used to represent absorption factor, angular acceleration, angles, common-base currentam pilification factor, attenuation, deviation of state parameter, thermal expansion, temperature coefficient of resistance, and thermal diffusivity in sciences and mathematics. In APL programming language, the Alpha symbol is also used as the left programming argument. The alpha stage in software development is the first phase where software testing occurs. In southeast Asia, Alpha is the mother of all creation. Alpha is an alternate name for the river Styx which represents both rebirth and death. Alpha also symbolizes creation. Because Alpha is the first letter in the alphabet, it also symbolizes the beginning of something. In the bible, God says he is the Alpha and Omega, the beginning and end. Alpha and Omega combined are a Christian symbol for God. Alpha has also been used to detonate strength and pack position, or social hierarchy. Alpha males are strong leaders. Alpha also has a numeric value of 1. The word alphabet comes from combining the Greek letters Alpha and Beta. Alpha is also the name of a villain in the television show “Walking Dead.”

### Beta

The letter Beta from the Greek alphabet has a numeric value of 2. The beta phase of software development follows the alpha phase. This part of software development might still include some bugs. Beta is the symbol of the International Phonetic Alphabet. In finance, beta is used as a measurement of risk. Beta rays and beta radiation occur in physics. Beta is also used as a symbol of standardized and nonstandardized partial slope coefficients. Beta also represents the second side of a triangle. In aerodynamics, beta is the sideslip angle of an airplane. There is a beta brain wave in cognitive science. In astronomy, beta is used as a symbol for ecliptic latitude. In plasma physics, the beta of plasma is the ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic pressure. In medicine, beta-blockers are used to treat abnormal heartbeat and hypertension. Hurricane Beta occurred in 2005 where it impacted the Caribbean. Beta represents regression slope or type II error in statistics. Beta is used in rock climbing to show how to complete a climbing route. Betamax and Betacam were different types of videotape. Beta is used in slang as a term that refers to people who lack confidence. A Beta male would rank lower than an Alpha male.

### Gamma

Gamma is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. It has a numeric value of three. Lowercase and uppercase Gamma symbols are used to symbolize different things. The lowercase Gamma symbolizes gamma radiation in nuclear physics, the chromatic number in graph theory, and surface energy in materials science. In thermodynamics, it symbolizes the heat capacity ratio. In the theory of relativity, the lowercase Gamma symbol represents the Lorentz factor, which is the factor by which length, time, and relativistic mass change for an object while that object is moving. The lowercase Gamma symbol is also a symbol for the photon, an elementary particle of light. Gamma motor neurons and gamma rays are also symbolized by the lowercase Gamma symbol. In thermodynamics, the active coefficient is represented by the lowercase Gamma symbol, as is the gyromagnetic ratio in electromagnetism. Gamma correction is a nonlinear operation used to decode and encode tristimulus values and luminance in video and still image systems. In mechanical and civil engineering the lowercase Gamma symbolizes Austenite, specific weight, and the shear rate of a fluid. Gamma carbon is the third carbon attached to a functional group in organic and biochemistry. In number theory, the lowercase Gamma symbolizes the Euler-Mascheroni constant.

The uppercase Gamma is used differently than the lowercase. The uppercase Gamma symbol is used to represent the upper incomplete gamma function and the gamma function in mathematics. It is also used to represent the Feferman-Schutte ordinal in mathematics. Gamma distribution in statistics and probability theory is represented by an uppercase Gamma symbol. Christoffel symbols are represented by an uppercase Gamma symbol in differential geometry. In engineering and physics, the uppercase Gamma symbol represents reflection coefficients. The uppercase gamma symbol represents the tape alphabet symbol on a Turing machine. In fluid mechanics the uppercase Gamma symbol represents circulation. In finance Gamma is one of the second-order Greeks. The gamma symbol is used in Gammadion crosses. One such cross is the swastika cross which is made out of four capital Greek gamma symbols. The swastika symbol was used as a veiled symbol of the cross on early Christian tombs. There is also a Gamma cross which is part of the Gammadion crosses. The Gamma symbol has also been combined with the Tao symbol to make the Gamma Tao symbol, a symbol that connects emotional, spiritual, and rational intelligence and transcends cultures and languages.

### Delta

Delta is the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet; therefore, it has a numerical value of four. The name delta has been associated with river deltas because these areas are similar in shape to the Delta symbol. The Delta symbol is also a symbol of the Holy Door of birth. The uppercase Delta symbol is used in science and mathematics as a symbol for change. It is also used to show the discriminant of a polynomial. In mathematics, the uppercase Delta symbol represents the Laplace operator, the area of a triangle, a macroscopic change, the symmetric difference of two sets, and a convex hull. In particle physics, the uppercase Delta symbol represents delta particles. In quantum mechanics, the symbol is used to represent uncertainty in a physical variable. The addition of heat in a reaction in chemistry is portrayed using the uppercase Delta symbol. Delta is one of the First-order Greeks in finance. The uppercase Delta symbol represents the defendant in legal shorthand. It is also a symbol for the maiden, mother, and crone. Having a divine truth-value, or determinacy in philosophical logic is represented with an uppercase Delta symbol. In jazz music, the seventh major chord is called a delta chord and can be symbolized by the uppercase Delta symbol. James David Forbes, a Scottish physicist, used the Delta symbol for his signature. The uppercase Delta symbol is also a symbol of dentistry. Delta airline uses the uppercase delta symbol in its logo. The US Space Force uses the uppercase Delta in its seal. There is an elite special operations force of the army called the Delta force which uses the uppercase Delta symbol in its logo.

The lowercase Delta symbol is used in functional calculus to show a functional derivative. It is also used as an auxiliary function and to show the change in the value of a variable in calculus. In mathematics, the lowercase Delta symbol also represents the degree of a vertex. The lowercase Delta symbol is also used in the Dirac delta function and the Kronecker delta. In actuarial science, the lowercase Delta symbol is used to represent the force of interest. In automata, the lowercase Delta symbol is used to represent the transition function. It is also used to represent the relative electronegativity. In chemistry, this symbol is used to represent the chemical shift of nuclear magnetic resonance. In proofreading, the lowercase Delta symbol is used to represent a letter or text that needs to be deleted. In the ATP synthase, F-ATpase, the lowercase Delta symbol is used as a subunit of the F1 sector. In the Black-Scholes option pricing formula, the lowercase Delta symbol is used to represent the dividend yield. In optical mineralogy, the symbol is used to represent the maximum birefringence of a crystal. Dr. John Dee, a mathematician, used the lowercase Delta symbol to represent himself in manuscripts. In astronomy, the symbol is used to represent the declination of an object. Partial charge in chemistry is represented with a lowercase Delta symbol. The angle between voltage and current in a system that exhibits electrical reactance is represented with a lowercase Delta symbol. In macroeconomics, the lowercase Delta symbol is used in the exogenous growth model.

### Epsilon

The fifth letter of the Greek alphabet is Epsilon. It has a value of five. The lowercase Epsilon symbol is used in mathematics to represent an arbitrarily small positive quantity, dual numbers, the Levi-Civita symbol, and the Heaviside step function. The lowercase Epsilon symbol is also used to represent children. In computer science, the lowercase Epsilon symbol represents the empty string. It is also used in machine epsilon. Epsilon numbers in set theory represent ordinal numbers that satisfy the fixed point. In physics, the lowercase Epsilon symbol represents the strain of material and the permittivity of a medium. The lowercase Epsilon symbol is used to represent photosynthetic efficiency in agronomy. In astronomy, Epsilon is the name of the most visible ring of Uranus and the symbol represents the fifth brightest star in a constellation. The lowercase Epsilon symbol represents the degree of sphericity and error terms in statistics. The symbol also represents the molar extinction coefficient in chemistry. In planetary science, the lowercase Epsilon symbol represents axial tilt. The symbol also refers to elasticity in economics. The current day “E” in the American alphabet is derived from the uppercase Epsilon symbol.

### Zeta

Zeta is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet. It has a value of seven. Originally, there was another ancient Greek letter in the sixth place of the alphabet. During the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, Tropical Storm Zeta broke records by becoming the thirtieth tropical storm of that season. The lowercase Zeta symbol is used in engineering and physics to represent the damping ratio. In mathematics, the symbol is used in the Riemann Zeta function and the Weierstrass Zeta function. The symbol also represents equilibrium computations in physical chemistry. In quantum chemistry, the lowercase Zeta symbol represents the effective nuclear charge on an electron. In industrial materials technology, the symbol represents the heat flux through or across a plane. In chemistry, the lowercase Zeta symbol represents the electrokinetic potential. In conduction equations, the symbol is used to represent the number whose discrete values are the positive roots of transcendental equations. In helicopter blade dynamics, the symbol represents the lag angle. In continuum mechanics, the symbol represents relative voracity in the atmosphere and the ocean. A stylized version of the lowercase Zeta symbol was used on the coat of arms for the principality of Zeta which was formed in the 12 century AD.

### Eta

Eta is the seventh letter of the Greek alphabet. Its numerical value is eight. The lowercase Eta symbol is used to represent hapticity in chemistry. It also represents the eta mesons in particle physics. Packing fraction and the efficiency of a Carnot heat engine are represented by the lowercase Eta in thermodynamics. The quantum efficiency of detectors and the electromagnetic impedance of a medium in optics are represented by the lowercase Eta symbol. The lowercase Eta symbol stands for pseudorapidity in experimental particle physics. The symbol is also used in oceanography, it is the measurement of sea level height above or below the mean sea level at that location. In cosmology, the lowercase Eta symbol represents the baryon photon ratio and conformal time. The symbol also represents viscosity in rheology. In quantum field theory, the lowercase Eta symbol represents the metric tensor of flat space-time. It also represents the absolute atmospheric vorticity in atmospheric science. The lowercase Eta symbol also represents the linear predictor of a generalized linear model in statistics. In electronics, it also represents the idealists factor of a bipolar transistor and the efficiency of a power supply. Elasticity in economics is represented using the lowercase Eta symbol. The symbol also stands for efficiency in telecommunications. In astronomy, the lowercase Eta symbol is used to represent the seventh star in a constellation. In some computing systems, the symbol stands for the learning rate. In mathematics, the lowercase Eta symbol is used to represent the Weierstrass eta function, the Dirichlet eta function, the Dedekind eta function, and in lambda calculus. The lowercase Eta symbol is also used to represent the monad or unit of an adjunction in category theory.

Using the Iota and uppercase Eta symbols together forms the symbol for Christ in Christianity. In information theory, the symbol is used to represent entropy. The uppercase Eta symbol is also used in textual criticism. In chemistry, it is used as a symbol for enthalpy.

### Theta

The Greek letter Theta is the eighth letter of the Greek alphabet. Its numerical value is nine. Theta Sigma is the nickname of Dr. Who. The uppercase Theta symbol is used to represent a variable representing temperature difference in heat transfer. It is also used to represent the dimension of temperature. The uppercase Theta symbol is also used to represent the measurement of an angle of an incident x-ray beam. It is also used in the Big O mathematical notation. The uppercase Theta symbol is used in the First-order Greeks in finance. In set theory, the symbol is used as a certain ordinal number. It also represents brain signal frequency measuring four to eight Hz. In particle physics, the uppercase Theta symbol is used to represent pentaquarks. It is also a symbol for Earth Day. Theta is also considered the symbol of death in Ancient Greece. The Theta symbol was also used on pottery when voting for the death penalty for an accused criminal, therefore Theta was considered an unlucky number. Because of this Roman coins have the symbols of Epsilon (5) and Delta (4) instead of the Theta (9) symbol.

The lowercase Theta symbol is used in pharmacology to represent the fraction of a ligand bound to a macromolecule based on the Hill equation. In geometry, the lowercase Theta symbol represents a plane angle, while in trigonometry, it represents an unknown variable. The Heaviside step function is represented by the lowercase Theta symbol. It also represents a special function and one of the Chebyshev functions in mathematics. In set theory, the symbol represents the ordinal collapsing function. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, the lowercase Theta symbol is used to represent the voiceless dental fricative. In meteorology, the symbol represents potential temperature. In economic models, it represents the reserve ratio of banks. In item response theory, the lowercase Theta symbol represents the score that the test taker obtained. In population genetics, the symbol is used in the Watterson estimator. It also represents Theta Type Replication in molecular biology. The lowercase Theta symbol also stands for the statistical parameter when writing the likelihood function. The symbol also stands for the threshold value of an artificial neuron. In astronomy, it is used to represent the eighth star in a constellation.

### Iota

Iota is the ninth letter of the Greek alphabet. It has a numeric value of ten. The word iota, which means the smallest amount, was derived from Iota. The lowercase Iota symbol is used to represent and generate a ray of consecutive integers in programming languages. It also represents certain Unicode points. In mathematics, the lowercase Iota represents the imaginary unit and the inclusion map of one space into another. It also symbolizes the definite descriptor in logic.

### Kappa

Kappa is the tenth letter of the Greek alphabet. It has a numeric value of twenty. The uppercase Kappa symbol is used in chemistry to symbolize the amount of oxygen required to bleach a pulp and denticity. It is also used in textual criticism. It also symbolizes an ordinal that is also a cardinal in set theory.

The lowercase Kappa symbol is used to represent the capital utilization rate in macroeconomics. In statistics and mathematics, Fleiss’ kappa and Cohen’s kappa calculate inter-rater reliability, the connectivity of a graph, and the curvature of a curve. The Kappa symbol represents a measure of diagnostic reliability in psychiatry and psychology. In physics, the Kappa symbol represents the compressibility of a compound, the curvature of the universe, von Karman constant, the torsional constant of an oscillator, and the coupling coefficient in magneto statistics. In pharmacology and biology, the Kappa symbol represents the opioid receptor, nucleotide motifs, and the subtype of an antibody component. In engineering, it represents a multiplication factor and the ratio of the smaller factored moment to the larger factored moment.

### Lambda

Lambda is the eleventh letter of the Greek alphabet. Its numeric value is thirty. The lowercase Lambda symbol was used starting in 1970, in wake of the Stonewall rebellion, by the Gay Activists Alliance New York chapter. It is also a symbol of Gay Liberation. The Lambda Literary Foundation and Lambda Legal, the Gay Rights Congress in Edinburgh also used the Lambda symbol. In mathematics and science, the lowercase Lambda symbol represents wavelength, longitude, radioactive decay constant, heat of vaporization, unit of volume, length constant, an eigenvalue, the length constant of electric potential, linear charge density, ionic conductance of a given ion, linear charge density, failure rate of devices and systems, Lagrange multiplier, and the Lebesgue measure. The long term intrinsic growth rate of a population is symbolized by the Lambda symbol in ecology. A computer game series uses a block style Lambda symbol. An individual’s frequency of offenses in criminal justice is symbolized by the Lambda symbol. A series of carrier rockets from Japan were named Lambda. The lowercase Lambda symbol represents the empty string in formal language theory. The lowercase Lambda symbol also represents balance.

The uppercase Lambda symbol is a symbol of a white nationalist movement that originated in France called Identitarianism. In subatomic particle physics, the lambda particle is a subatomic particle. The grating pitch of a Bragg reflector used the uppercase Lambda symbol in optics. The Spartan army used Lambda as a shield pattern to represent unity. The cosmological constant is represented with an uppercase Lambda symbol in cosmology. In statistics and mathematics, the uppercase Lambda symbol represents Wilks lambda and the VonMangoldt function. The equivalent conductance is symbolized with an uppercase Lambda in electrochemistry. The period of a lattice is represented with the uppercase Lambda symbol in crystal optics. NATO military operations mark their vehicles with an uppercase Lambda symbol.

### Mu

Mu is the twelfth letter of the Greek alphabet. It has a numeric value of forty. In science and mathematics, the Mu symbol represents an opiate receptor, micron, micro, mutation rate, Ramanujan-Soldner constant, population mean, minimization, Mobius function, integrating factor, degree of measurement in a fuzzy set, the learning rate, used to introduce a recursive data type, rotor advance ratio, coefficient of friction, electrical mobility, reduced mass, amplification factor, standard gravitational parameter, dynamic viscosity, linear density, magnetic dipole moment, and permeability. The Mu symbol stands for the mora in phonology. In music, there is a Mu chord. The official name of the Kpop group contains the Mu symbol, and the symbol is also used in the Planet Mu label. The Olympus corporation has a camera with the Mu symbol in its name.

### Nu

Nu is the thirteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. Its numeric value is fifty. The Nu symbol is used in psychology to represent the maximum conditioning possible for an unconditioned stimulus. In mathematics, the Nu symbol is used to represent Vega in finance, the degree of freedom, free names of a process, and the greatest fixed point. In science, the Nu symbol represents the stoichiometric coefficient, kinematic viscosity, true anomaly, frequency of a wave, molecular vibrational mode, specific volumes, the number of neutrons released per fission of an atom, Poisson’s ratio, neutrinos, and a DNA polymerase. In Ancient Egypt, Nu was the creator of the gods.

### Xi

Xi is the fourteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. It has a numeric value of sixty. The lowercase Xi symbol is used in particle physics to represent momentum loss. It also represents random, dimensionless distance, and proportional variables. Robotic mapping uses the Xi lowercase symbol to represent the information vector. It also is used to represent the extent of a reaction. It represents microturbulence velocity, unknown stereochemistry, the diameter of a crystal nucleus, parameter, state price density, systematic function equation, Pippard’s cohesion length, eigenvectors, killing vector, damping ratio, radio integral, universal set, potential difference, initial mass function, and spatial frequency in mathematics and science.

The uppercase Xi symbol is used in cryptocurrency. It is also used in particle physics to represent the cascade particles. In mathematics, there is a Riemann Xi function. In computing systems, the symbol indicates no change of states. In statistical mechanics, the uppercase Xi is used to represent partition function. The uppercase Xi symbol appears in different logos including ZEA, a band, Razer, and musician Banners.

### Omicron

Omicron is the fifteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. Its numeric value is seventy. The Omicron symbol is used to represent the fifteenth star in a constellation. It was also originally used for the Big O notation but was replaced with Theta.

### Pi

Pi is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. It has a numeric value of eighty. The uppercase Pi symbol represents a plaintiff in legal shorthand. It also represents the Codex Petropolitanus. In engineering and science, the uppercase Pi symbol represents viscous stress tensor, product operator, and osmotic pressure.

The lowercase Pi symbol represents polyamory. It also represents the mathematical real transcendental, the unary operation, prime counting function, natural projection, homotopy groups, inflation rates, dimensionless parameters, and economic profit, and a hadron in mathematics and sciences. A pi bond is also represented with the lowercase Pi symbol.

### Rho

Rho is the seventeenth letter of the Greek alphabet. It has a numeric value of one hundred. When Rho and Chi, the first two letters of Christ, are overlaid they become a symbol for Christ. Rhodes scholars use the Rho symbol to designate their status. In mathematics and science, the Rho symbol is used to represent the rate of change of a portfolio, the Hammett equation, densities, general quantum states, resistivity, a short-lived hadronic particle (rho meson), Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, expected return of a given policy, length coordinate, sensitivity to interest rates, correlation coefficient, prime constant, spectral radius, plastic number, LaTeX, unary rename operation, reshape, discount rate, population damping ratio, Rho protein, and the Rho family.

### Sigma

Sigma is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. It has a numeric value of two hundred. The lowercase Sigma symbol is used to represent velocity dispersion, cross-section, Pauli matrices, Stefan-Boltzmann constant, surface tension, measure of electrical conductivity, normal stress, and the surface charge in physics. In other sciences, the lowercase Sigma symbol represents the sigma receptor, millisecond, life span, standard deviation, sum-of-divisors function, Weierstrass sigma-function, the spectrum of a linear map, quality model, the volatility of a stock, the elasticity of substitution, damping parameter, unary operation, target radar’s cross-section, Sigmoid Logistics function, sigma constant, and sigma bonds. In linguistics, the lowercase Sigma symbol is used to represent a syllable. Six Sigma uses a lowercase Sigma symbol in its logo.

The uppercase Sigma symbol is used to represent the busy beaver function, summation operator, covariance matrix, macroscopic cross-sections, the balance of the invoice classes, baryons, and self-energy. It was also used in Brazil by a fascist organization. Sigma Aldrich uses the uppercase Sigma symbol in its logo.

### Tau

Tau is the nineteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. Its numerical value is 300. The lowercase Tau symbol is the symbol for tortuosity in hydrogeology. It also symbolizes proper time, torque, shear stress, the time constant, the lifetime of spontaneous emission, time variable, and a measure of optical depth in physics. In biology, the lowercase Tau symbol is a protein in biochemistry, the freerunning rhythm of an animal, the core value, and the dose interval. The lowercase Tau symbol is used in mathematics to represent translation, divisor function, torsion of a curve, Golden ratio, and stopping time. There are several tau functions in math and tau itself is a circle constant equal to 2Pi. In statistics, the lowercase Tau symbol is used to represent the Kendall tau rank correlation coefficient. It is also used to represent a specific tax amount.

In the Franciscan order of monks, the Tau symbol is the symbol of the order. They wear a lowercase tau on their necks with three knots tied into the string. St. Francis, who the order is based upon, loved the Tau symbol as it represented the cross. Tau also symbolizes life and resurrection. The Tau Cross is a T-shaped cross with the ends expanded. It is also called the St. Anthony’s cross. The Hospital Brothers of St. Anthony wore a habit that contained a blue tau. Ancient Egyptians used the Tau symbol to mark sacred water vessels. In freemasonry, the Triple Tau symbol which represents the temple of Jerusalem.

### Upsilon

Upsilon is the twentieth letter of the Greek alphabet. It has a numeric value of four hundred. The uppercase Upsilon symbol represents mass to light ratio and an Upsilon particle in science. The lowercase Upsilon symbol is used to represent a labiodental approximant in linguistics. The astrological sign Aries is symbolized with an uppercase Upsilon symbol. Pythagoras used the uppercase Upsilon symbol to represent the path of virtue or vice. The Ypsilon car model uses the uppercase Upsilon in its logo.

### Phi

Phi is the twenty-first letter of the Greek alphabet. It has a numerical value of five hundred. The uppercase Phi symbol is used to represent the imaginary phallus in Lacanian algebra. It is also used to represent the golden ratio, parametrization of a surface, electric and magnetic flux, the number of phases in a power system, and the cumulative distribution function in sciences. The uppercase Phi symbol also symbolizes the generic act in philosophy.

The lowercase Phi symbol is used in mathematics and science to represent bacteriophage, magnetic flux, site survival probability, wave functions, roll angle, Euler’s totient function, strength reduction factor, cyclotomic polynomial functions, porosity, group homomorphisms, Veblen function, characteristic and probability density function, geodesy, angle, the ratio of free energy, work function, fugacity coefficient, and an aromatic functional group. La France Insoumise, a French leftist political party is represented with the Phi symbol. The lowercase Phi symbol is also used to represent a function that maps elements in lexical-functional grammar. There is a phi phenomenon in perceptual psychology. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, the lowercase Phi symbol represents a voiceless bilabial fricative.

### Chi

Chi is the twenty-second letter of the Greek alphabet. Its numerical value is six hundred. In mathematics and science, the Chi symbol is used to represent a chromatic number, Euler characteristic, reduction factor, crossings of peripheral nerves, magnetic or electric susceptibility, and the mole fraction. The chi-squared test, distribution, and target models are used in statistics. The chiastic structure literary device is used in rhetoric.

The uppercase Chi symbol represents the abbreviated name for Christ. It also forms the labarum when used with the Rho symbol, which means the name of Christ such as Xmas. Plato used the uppercase Chi symbol to represent the two bands that form the soul of the world. The Tai Chi symbol, also known as the yin yang symbol, represents balance.

### Psi

Psi is the twenty-third letter of the Greek alphabet. It has a numerical value of seven hundred. In science and mathematics, the Psi symbol is used to represent an ordinal collapsing function, wave functions, a phase relationship between a zeitgeber and a biological rhythm, positional states of a qubit, the return value of a program, subatomic particle, polygamma function, general pharmacy, reciprocal Fibonacci constant, Neptune, parapsychology, psychology, psychiatry, dihedral angle, super golden ratio, division polynomials, stream function, water potential, and the nucleoside Pseudouridine. It is also the symbol of the sai, a traditional Melee weapon and Indiana University. The Psi symbol was also used as an abbreviation for the book of Psalms in Biblical studies. There are Psi type figurines that come from Mycenaean Greece. They were used for grave offerings, headdresses, and children’s toys. Psi also looks like the symbol for a trident.

### Omega

Omega is the last letter of the Greek alphabet. Its numerical value is eight hundred. The lowercase Omega symbol is used in science and mathematics to represent the tracking error, first transfinite ordinal number, the elasticity of financial options, first uncountable ordinal number, self-application combinator, root of unity, arithmetic function, Wright Omega function, distinct prime divisor, differential form, RNA polymerase unit, the measure of molecular evolution, fitness, NULL, angular velocity, natural frequency, and a change of pressure. In astronomy, the lowercase Omega symbol is used to represent a ranking of a star’s brightness. The lowercase Omega symbol is also used to symbolize the lowest ranking member of a group. It also represents the phonological word in linguistics. The lowercase Omega system also represents the archetype of a manuscript tradition in textual criticism.

The uppercase Omega symbol is used in mathematics and science to represent prime divisors, subobject classifier, sample space, looping combinator, oxygen-18, ohm, and solid angle. The uppercase Omega symbol is used in many trademarks and logos including Kenny Omega, Omega watches, Darkseid, Pioneer, Primal Groudon, God of War video game, and the Hero of Olympus book series. The Omega symbol is also a symbol of the end. In the bible, God says that he is the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end. In some cultures, they have turned the uppercase Omega symbol into a horseshoe that represents the conclusion of the cycle.